College of Foreign Languages, Zhejiang Normal University
MA in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics 2011-2012/2
Applied Linguistics (应用语言学)
Dr. Wu Benhu
Session 3 Language Teacher Preparation
Berns, Margie and Keith Brown. 2010. Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. Second Language Teacher Preparation by M. Schocker-v. Ditfurth and M. K. Legutke 358-366; Teacher Preparation by C. Brumfit 375-382.
Simpson, James (ed.). 2011. The Routledge Handbook of Applied Linguistics. London: Routledge. Chapter 15 Language teacher education.
Borg (2011: 216)
Q05 What are the main points in the new view of language teacher education (LTE)?
The analytical text
The publication this extract comes from was a landmark in the development of LTE as a field. First, it acknowledged the limited empirical basis of LTE and stressed the need to address this. Second, this text argued for a new view of the education of language teachers, which it summarized as follows:
l a movement away from a ‘training’ perspective to an ‘education’ perspective and a recognition that effective teaching involves higher-level cognitive processes, which cannot be taught directly;
l the need for teachers and student teachers to adopt a research orientation to their own classrooms and their own teaching;
l less emphasis on prescriptions and top-down directives and more emphasis on an inquiry-based and discovery-oriented approach to learning (bottom-up);
l a focus on devising experiences that require the student teacher to generate theories and hypotheses and to reflect critically on teaching;
l less dependence on linguistics and language theory as a source discipline for second language teacher education, and more of an attempt to integrate sound, educationally based approaches;
l use of procedures that involve teachers in gathering and analyzing data about teaching.
(Richards and Nunan 1990: xii)
There are 6 points in the new view of LTE:
1. Teacher training Ú Teacher education
2. Research-oriented classroom practice
3. Inquiry-discovery approaches to learning
4. Generating theories and hpotheses
5. More educationally based
6. Gathering and analyzing data about teaching
Borg (2011: 218-222)
Q07 How many themes are presented? What are they? Which do you want to discuss?
Current issues in LTE
I will now provide concise commentaries on six themes which currently characterize LTE.
There are 9 themes in LTE presented:
1. Teacher cognition
2. The knowledge base for LTE
3. Knowledge about language
4. Reflective practice
5. The practicum
6. Teacher research
7. Teacher educator development.
8. Novice teachers
9. Teacher expertise
Berns, Margie and Keith Brown. 2010. Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Elsevier.
Teacher Preparation 375-382
by C. Brumfit, University of Southampton
Brumfit (2010: 377)
Q10 What are courses offered in most English language teacher education?
The analytical text
The specific ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) part of the course had broadly similar contents from course to course across continents. For example, a survey of the commonest elements in TESOL methods courses in 22 North American institutions (Long, 1983) found the following (number of courses in brackets):
1. Historical overview of teaching methods (19)
2. Teaching speaking skills (18)
3. Curriculum/syllabus design (18)
4. Teaching techniques (18)
5. Innovative/unconventional teaching methods (17)
6. Materials (17)
7. Teaching writing skills (16)
8. Teaching listening skills (15)
9. Teaching reading skills (15)
10. Teaching grammar (14)
11. Language testing (12)
12. Teaching vocabulary (11)
13. Teaching culture (10)
14. Linguistics and language teaching (10).
From the above list, we can find some interesting points:
1. Teaching methods are the most widely covered area of study.
2. The second group of courses involves the subjects such as (1) teaching speaking skills, (2) curriculum/syllabus design and (3) teaching techniques.
3. It is noticeable that innovative/unconventional teaching methods are listed by many language teacher education program.
4. We may also consider ‘teaching culture’ as course for our program.
What are your expectations from a course for English language teacher education?
Elaborate your expectations from an English language teacher education.
(You are required to present your course work as responses to the article “应用语言学：第03讲：：Language teacher preparation” in the category “应用语言学课程” of 吴本虎学友之园 – 博客生活 http://www.cnweblog.com/wubenhu/ This course work is required to be presented by 24:00, 7 March 2012.)
General Questions for Session 4
1. What is essential for an effective bilingual education program?
2. What are limitations of bilingual education?
3. What are the differences between childhood bilingualism and adult bilingualism?